DEFENSE AND CITY INFRASTRUCTURE IN BALIKPAPAN DURING THE DUTCH AND JAPANESE OCCUPATION

Nugroho Nur Susanto

Abstract. At the end of the 19th century, petroleum resources were found in the eastern region of Kalimantan, which is in Sanga Sanga, Tarakan and Balikpapan. The rich quantity of oil encourages the Dutch and Japanese to compete for control of the three mines and for competitive advantage in the world economy. As a result, mining infrastructures and defense systems of the Dutch and Japanese were built in the mining zone. This paper discusses the role of Balikpapan in the petroleum industry during the Dutch and Japanese occupation in Indonesia, as well as the form of defense structures. This study uses descriptive method with approach to cultural history. The study results suggest that Balikpapan became the basis of the petroleum industry management during the Dutch and Japanese colonial periods. Thus, not only oil industry infrastructures were found in Balikpapan, but the city facilities to support the social lives of its employees and military facilities to maintain security and order in the city as well.

Keywords: banua patra, Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, Mathilda well, Australia, Shell, Pertamina Balikpapan massacre

Source: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, p. 85-105
Email: nugi_balarbjm@yahoo.com

Advertisements

INFRASTRUKTUR PERTAHANAN DAN KOTA DI BALIKPAPAN PADA MASA OKUPASI BELANDA DAN JEPANG

Nugroho Nur Susanto

Abstrak. Pada akhir abad ke-19, sumber minyak bumi ditemukan di kawasan timur Kalimantan, yaitu di Sanga Sanga, Tarakan, dan Balikpapan. Kuantitas minyak yang sangat melimpah mendorong Belanda dan Jepang berlomba-lomba menguasai ketiga tambang tersebut dan demi keunggulan persaingan ekonomi dunia. Sebagai akibatnya, infrastruktur pertambangan dan sistem pertahanan milik Belanda dan Jepang dibangun di lingkungan zona pertambangan. Tulisan ini membahas peranan Balikpapan dalam industri perminyakan masa okupasi Belanda dan Jepang di Indonesia, serta bentuk struktur pertahanannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan sejarah kebudayaan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Balikpapan menjadi basis manajemen industri minyak bumi selama masa kolonial Belanda dan Jepang. Dengan demikian, di Balikpapan tidak hanya ditemukan infrastruktur industri minyak, melainkan fasilitas kota untuk mendukung kehidupan sosial pegawainya, dan fasilitas militer untuk menjaga keamanan dan ketertiban kota.

Kata kunci: banua patra, Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, sumur Mathilda, Australia, Shell, Pertamina, pembantaian Balikpapan

Sumber: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, hlm. 85-105
Email: nugi_balarbjm@yahoo.com

EARLY CHINESE SETTLEMENT IN SINGKAWANG (WEST KALIMANTAN)

Ida Bagus Putu Prajna Yogi

Abstract. Singkawang, located on the west coast of Kalimantan, has a strategic position which enables foreign traders who sailed through the Karimata Strait to make it as their targeted area. Around the 18th century AD, besides merchants, migrants from China also came to this area and made a colony on the coast. However, since the Chinese migrants’ main desire was to find gold, they shifted their settlement to the gold mining areas in the interior. After the gold deposit began to decline, it was reported that at the beginning of 19th century many Chinese miners altered their subsistence into agriculture and crops business, and re-settled in the coastal areas. The existence of the Chinese community who performed as professional traders in the Singkawang caused the region to develop gradually as a famous commercial area. This paper discusses the location of early Chinese settlements based on archaeological and ethnographic data to obtain a picture of the life of Chinese community in the past in Singkawang and its development. This settlement study was conducted using inductive-descriptive reasoning, whereas the data collection was carried out by survey techniques supported by literature study and interviews. The results of this study provide an understanding that the old Chinese settlements were concentrated in a number of locations that were closely related to the types of subsistence. However, the earliest settlement was located in the vicinity of the estuary of Singkawang River, which was the port area where gold merchant ships collected their gold delivery from Monterado.

Keywords: settlements, Chinese, gold mining, subsistence, trade, trade partnership, shrine

Source: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, p. 69-84
Email: bagoes_balar@gmail.com

PEMUKIMAN CINA AWAL DI SINGKAWANG (KALIMANTAN BARAT)

Ida Bagus Putu Prajna Yogi

Abstrak. Singkawang, yang terletak di pesisir pantai barat Kalimantan, memiliki posisi yang strategis yang memungkinkannya menjadi salah satu daerah tujuan para pedagang asing yang berlayar melalui Selat Karimata. Sekitar abad ke-18 Masehi, selain pedagang, perantau dari Cina juga datang ke wilayah ini dan membuat koloni di pesisir. Namun, oleh karena hasrat utama para perantau Cina adalah mencari emas, kemudian terjadi pergeseran tempat tinggal mereka ke daerah pertambangan emas di pedalaman. Setelah deposit emas mulai menurun, dilaporkan bahwa pada awal abad ke-19 Masehi banyak penambang Cina yang beralih mata pencaharian di bidang pertanian dan usaha tanaman perdagangan, dan kembali bermukim di daerah pesisir. Keberadaan komunitas Cina yang memiliki profesi pedagang di Singkawang menyebabkan kawasan ini lambat laun berkembang menjadi daerah dagang yang mashur. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan lokasi pemukiman Cina awal berdasarkan data arkeologis dan etnografis untuk memperoleh gambaran kehidupan komunitas pada masa lalu di Singkawang dan perkembangannya. Studi pemukiman ini dilaksanakan dengan penalaran induktif-deskriptif, sedangkan pengumpulan data dilaksanakan dengan teknik survei yang didukung oleh studi pustaka dan wawancara. Hasil studi ini memberikan pemahaman bahwa pemukiman Cina tua terpusat di sejumlah lokasi yang berkaitan erat dengan jenis mata pencahariannya. Namun, pemukiman yang paling awal terdapat di sekitar muara Sungai Singkawang, yaitu kawasan pelabuhan kapal-kapal saudagar emas yang mengumpulkan kiriman emasnya dari Monterado

Kata kunci: pemukiman, Cina, tambang emas, mata pencaharian, perdagangan, kongsi, tempat peribadatan

Sumber: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, hlm. 69-84
Email: bagoes_balar@gmail.com

POTENTIAL SITES AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE REGION OF MÜLLER MOUNTAINS

Ulce Oktrivia

Abstract. The region of the Müller Mountains provide natural resources that can be benefitted since the past until now for the survival of human beings living there. Thus, it is assumed that many archaeological remains will be found in that region. This research uses descriptive method with inductive reasoning. Field-data collecting uses survey techniques, while the study of artifacts and sites uses explicative method. The collected data varies indicating prehistoric characteristics, characteristics from the period of Dutch occupation, and characteristics of cultures that sustained to this day. Furthermore, the site analysis suggests there are two types of sites, the single components site of settlement, and multi-component site of settlements and workshops.

Key words: natural resources, Müller Mountains region, prehistory, Dutch occupation, indigenous culture, settlement, workshops

Source: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, p. 49-68
Email: u_oktrivia@yahoo.com

POTENSI DAN KARAKTERISTIK SITUS ARKEOLOGI DI KAWASAN PEGUNUNGAN MÜLLER

Ulce Oktrivia

Abstrak. Kawasan Pegunungan Müller menyediakan sumberdaya alam yang menguntungkan kelangsungan hidup manusia yang bermukim di kawasan itu sejak dulu hingga kini. Dengan demikian, diasumsikan bahwa akan ditemukan banyak peninggalan arkeologi di kawasan tersebut. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan penalaran induktif. Pengumpulan data di lapangan dilakukan dengan teknik survei, sedangkan kajian artefak dan situsnya bersifat eksplikatif. Data yang terkumpul sangat beragam dengan karakteristik prasejarah, masa okupasi Belanda, dan kebudayaan yang masih berlangsung sampai saat ini. Selain itu, kajian situs menunjukkan adanya dua tipe situs, yaitu komponen tunggal berupa pemukiman, dan komponen jamak berupa pemukiman sekaligus perbengkelan.

Kata kunci: sumberdaya alam, kawasan Pegunungan Müller, prasejarah, okupasi Belanda, kebudayaan asli, pemukiman, perbengkelan

Sumber: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, hlm. 49-68
Email: u_oktrivia@yahoo.com

PREHISTORIC HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN CERUK BANGKAI IN TANAH BUMBU DISTRICT

Bambang Sugiyanto

Abstract. During the prehistoric period, human used of limestone rock-shelters as dwellings. Cave selection is not a random activity, but rather a reflection of human’s social behavior in order to survive. Therefore, dwelling location must be in the area that provides abundant and infinite natural resource, especially water. In the southeastern region of Kalimantan, there is the Meratus Mountains range which provides potential data on prehistoric settlements. Numerous studies on prehistoric dwelling have been conducted in that region. The present research aims to determine the characteristics of Ceruk Bangkai. The research method used was descriptive with inductive reasoning. Data were collected by survey and excavation techniques. The stone tools and remains of alimentation found on the cave terrace indicate that dwelling activities were conducted by human who practiced mesolithic and neolithic technology. However, more comprehensive information about the identity of the people of Ceruk Bangkai, especially social systems and cultural systems, is not yet known.

Keywords: rock-shelter, stone tools, alimentation, mesolithic technology, neolithic technology, cave occupation, Gua Babi, Awang Bangkal

Source: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, p. 28-48
Email: bsugiyanto67@gmail.com