Nugroho Nur Susanto
Abstract. At the end of the 19th century, petroleum resources were found in the eastern region of Kalimantan, which is in Sanga Sanga, Tarakan and Balikpapan. The rich quantity of oil encourages the Dutch and Japanese to compete for control of the three mines and for competitive advantage in the world economy. As a result, mining infrastructures and defense systems of the Dutch and Japanese were built in the mining zone. This paper discusses the role of Balikpapan in the petroleum industry during the Dutch and Japanese occupation in Indonesia, as well as the form of defense structures. This study uses descriptive method with approach to cultural history. The study results suggest that Balikpapan became the basis of the petroleum industry management during the Dutch and Japanese colonial periods. Thus, not only oil industry infrastructures were found in Balikpapan, but the city facilities to support the social lives of its employees and military facilities to maintain security and order in the city as well.
Keywords: banua patra, Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, Mathilda well, Australia, Shell, Pertamina Balikpapan massacre
Source: Berita Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.5 No.1 Tahun 2011, p. 85-105